POLIO: the virus and the vaccine
References for the articles as published in The Ecologist May 2004
A shot in the dark
2 Cooke, John: Treatise of Nervous Diseases, 1824
3 CK Mills; [Boston M & S J]; 108: 248-250; 15 March 1883
4 Vulpian, A.: Quoted by R. W. Lovett, Ref. 5 below.
5 CK Mills; [Boston M & S J]; 108: 248-250; 15 March 1883
6 CS Caverly; Yale Med J.; 1:1; 1894
7 WL Aycock; Ant J Hyg; 7: 791-803; November 1927
8 Australian Medical Gazette; 24 August 1897.
9 K Landsteiner; Wein Klin Wchnschr; 21: 1830; 1918
10 S Flexner and PA Lewis; The Journal of the American Medical Association; 33: 639; 13 November 1909
11 S Flexner; [Trans M Rec]; 78:924-926; 19 November 1910. R Scobey; Is the public health law responsible for the poliomyelitis mystery? Archive Of Pediatrics; May 1951
13 J Toomey; Journal of Pediatrics; 19:103; 1941
14 CW Jungeblut; Journal of Pediatrics; 37: 109; July 1950. R Scobey; Archives of Pediatrics; April 1952
15 Also see R Scobey; Is human poliomyelitis caused by an exogenous virus?; Science; (5) 51: 117; 1954
16 G Dalldorf and GM Sickles; An unidentified, filterable agent isolated from the faeces of children with paralysis; Science; 108: 61; 1948
17 JF Enders et al; Cultivation of the Lansing strain of poliomyelitis virus in cultures of various human embryonic tissues; Science; 109: 85; 1949
18 Lancet (1 8April 1953; page 777) stated that monkeys testicles as well as their kidneys were used as sources of the cells that form the culture-medium for the polio virus
19 T Francis Jr; An evaluation of the 1954 poliomyelitis vaccine trials summary report; American Journal of Public Health; 45: 1-63; 1955
20 M Beddow Bayly; The story of the Salk anti-poliomyelitis vaccine; www.whale.to/vaccine/bayly.html
21 The Lancet; 8 April 1950
22 Medical World Newsletter; June 1955
24 Walene James; www.vaccinetruth.org/polio_vaccines.htm
26 The Koch Postulates are taught in every foundation course of virology. They can be found on Indiana Universitys Introductory Virology webpage at http://www.bio.indiana.edu/courses/M430-Taylor-virology/history.html
27 GN Callahan; Eating dirt; Emerging Infectious Diseases; August 2003; www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/vol9no8/03-0033.htm
28 RR Rueckert; Infection: a rare event; Field's Virology; page 635; 1996.
29 R Scobey; Is human poliomyelitis caused by an exogenous virus? Science; (5) 51: 117; 1954
30 MS Biskind; Statement on clinical intoxication from DDT and other new insecticides, presented before United States House of Representatives to investigate the use of chemicals in food products; Journal Of Insurance Medicine; May, 1951
31 AB Sabin; The Journal of the American Medical Association; June 1947
32 D Dresden; Physiological Investigations into the Action Of DDT; GW Van Der Wiel & Co; Arnhem; 1949
33 MS Biskind and I Bieber; DDT poisoning: a new syndrome with neuropsychiatric manifestations; American Journal Of Psychotherapy; page 261; 1949
34 I.S. Eskwith; American Journal of Diseases of Children; 81: 684-686; May 1951
36 MS Biskind; Public health aspects of the new insecticides; American Journal of Digestive Diseases; 20: 330; 1953
38 MS Biskind; Statement on clinical intoxication from DDT and other new insecticides, presented before United States House of Representatives to investigate the use of chemicals in food products; Journal Of Insurance Medicine; May, 1951 - Also Archive Of Pediatrics; April 1952. Also Dr Ralph R. Scobey The Poison Cause of Poliomyelitis Archives of Pediatrics, vol. 69, p172 (April 1952). Also Emersons report on the 1908 epidemic in Massachusetts.
39 FM Burchet and AV Jackson; Poliomyelitis: the significance of neutralising antibodies in human sera; Journal of Experimental Biology; page 261; 1939
40 Public Law 518; Federal Statutes; 1954
40 Public Law 905; Federal Statutes; 1956
The hidden epidemic
42 A Arturo Leis et al; West Nile poliomyelitis; Reviewed in The Lancet[itals], 1 January 2003
43 Tom Solomon et al, West Nile encephalitis, British Medical Journal, April 19th, 2003.
45 WHO Polio Lab Network Vol IV, no 3, 1998
46 Helen Pearson; Polio vaccine may spawn disease; Nature, 17 November 2003.
47 Rand and Llang; Effects of pesticides on the immune system; [Environmental Health Centre Database]
49 WJ Rea et al; The environmental aspects of the post-polio syndrome;[ www.aehf.com/A56.htm ]
Poisonous Vaccines article
1 Manchester Guardian April 27
2 Journal of the American Medical Association February 25, 1961
3 Letter from John T. Conner of Merck & Co. to Dr. Leroy Burney, Surgeon General of the United States, dated 12/16/60 - Plaintiff's Exhibit No. 54 - In Re Sabin Polio Vaccine Litigation, MDL 780, U.S.D.C., MD - Baltimore, Maryland Second International Conference on Live Poliovirus Vaccines, Pan American Health Organization and the World Health Organization, Washington, DC 6-7 June, 1960, pp 79-85
4 Dr. Sabin stated: "The three types of the large lots produced by Merck Sharp & Dohme in Rhesus monkey kidney cell cultures contained SV40." WHO Report 1969
5 It is unclear why this doctor thought to test for SV40. He may well have read the report made by Hilleman and Swee
6 Federal Register, Saturday, March 25, 1961 at page 2565-2568, Sec. 73.110, et seq
7 Lederle Interoffice Memo, Re Presence of SV40 in vaccine lots 8 November 1961
8 1992 Lederle internal memo, 14 March 1979 Re Request of information for Australian Bureau of Health.
10 Interview by author with Professor Steward for the Independent newspaper, London, 1996
11 Hilleman MR. History, precedent, and progress in the development of mammalian cell culture systems for preparing vaccines: safety considerations revisited. J Med Virol 1990 May;31(1):5-12. PMID 2198327.
12 Rosa F W, Sever J L, Madden D L. Absence of antibody response to simian virus 40 after inoculation with killed-poliovirus vaccine of mothers of offspring with neurologic tumors. N Engl J Med 1988; 318: 1469.
13 Rosa F W, Sever J L. Madden D L. Response to: Neurologic tumors in offspring after inoculation of mothers with killed-poliovirus vaccine. N Engl J Med 1988; 319: 1226.
14 Andrew M. Lewis Jr., William M. Egan, Office of Vaccine Research and Review, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration as published in Simian Virus 40 (SV40) A Possible Human Polyomavirus, NIH, Betheseda, Maryland, USA, 1997].
15 Published in November, 1999, in Cancer.
16 A December 1996 paper in Oncogene by a German team headed by Roberta Santarelli, reporting research partly carried out by them at the US National Institutes of Health, stated that SV40 T-antigen induces breast cancer formation with a high efficiency in 100% of lactating and 70% of virgin animals. They further noted that it was indicated that immortalisation of mammary cells by SV40 T-antigen is a hit and run mechanism in that not all the cells affected by SV40 remain SV40 positive.